SUNSET

Sapienza University Networking framework for underwater Simulation, Emulation and real-life Testing

 

Validation - 2012



Validation - CLAM - 2012



November



In November 2012, several tests have been conducted in the Oslofjord in front of Horten, Norway. These tests have been carried out within the EU FP7 CLAM project. Four CLAM cNode modems, produced by Kongsberg Maritime, have been used, three of them deployed at a depth of 200 meters and the fourth one deployed on side of a ship acting as a mobile node. All nodes were battery powered and the ones deployed on the sea floor were equipped with acoustic releases for node recollection. Each of these nodes was also equipped with a floating collar to bring the nodes to the surface after the activation of the release, resulting in an overall weight for each node of more than 50kg. Inside each node a Gumstix Overo embedded device was installed and it was used to run the SUNSET framework and interact with the acoustic modem. The purpose of the experiment has been to investigate the networking protocol solutions used within the CLAM project. The back-seat driver mechanism has been therefore used to remotely control and reconfigure the entire network, allowing to test different MAC (Underwater Polling and CSMA) and routing (SUN and CARP) solutions. The node on the ship has been used as the control point to instruct the other nodes in the network.

We gratefully acknowledge the partners of the CLAM project for the support and help they have provided during the tests.

More information can be found in this paper.

Figure: CLAM test in the Oslo fjord.
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R. Petroccia and D. Spaccini, "Implementing a Back-Seat Driver to Remotely Control the Experiments in an Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network," in Proceedings of MTS/IEEE OCEANS 2013, (Bergen, Norway), IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society, June, 10-13 2013. - [BIB] - [PDF]






Validation - Evologics - 2012



October



In October 2012, several tests have been conducted in the Werbellin lake (close to Berlin, Germany) in collaboration with Evologics GmbH. Five moored Evologics acoustic modems S2C R 18/34 (WiSE and standard editions) with Ethernet connection have been deployed in the lake with a maximal depth of about 25 meters. A multi-hop underwater network have been deployed covering an area of approximately 600 meters x 600 meters, with up to 3 hops to connect the network. All the nodes were battery powered and SUNSET was installed inside the embedded developer sandbox available at each node.
The performance of three different MAC solutions (CSMA, T-Lohi and Slotted CSMA) and two routing protocols (two different flooding approaches) have been investigated under four different traffic loads, resulting in almost six hours of continuos testing. The SUNSET back-seat driver mechanism has been used to remotely instruct the entire network from the PC onboard of the boat to start, stop and monitor all the experiments. In all the considered tests the SUNSET back-seat driver mechanism has been able to reconfigure the nodes in the network, start and stop each test in less than 12 seconds.

We gratefully acknowledge the Evologics GmbH for its valuable feedback and for its support and help during the tests.

More information can be found in this paper.

Figure: Werbellin Lake.
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R. Petroccia and D. Spaccini, "Implementing a Back-Seat Driver to Remotely Control the Experiments in an Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network," in Proceedings of MTS/IEEE OCEANS 2013, (Bergen, Norway), IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society, June, 10-13 2013. - [BIB] - [PDF]






Validation - CMRE - 2012



October



The NATO CommsNet12 experiment has been conducted in 2012, in the period October 2 to 11, off the coast of Palmaria island. It has been conducted in collaboration with the NATO STO Centre for Maritime Research & Experimentation (CMRE), formerly NURC. The purpose of the experiment has been to develop and test new communication protocols for underwater networks, including tests about routing solutions. A network with more than 10 nodes has been deployed: a) 4 bottom-mounted tripods on which acoustic modems were installed; b) One gateway communications buoy; c) One WaveGlider autonomous surface vehicle; d) Three eFolaga AUVs; e) The NATO Research Vessel (NRV) Alliance; f) Additional modems, connected to Manta portable systems deployed from Rigid-hulled inflatable boats (RHIBs), to increase the scale of the network on a temporary basis.
Three different routing solutions and two MAC protocols have been investigated. Additionally, information about correct transmissions and receptions on the channel have been recorded for the investigation of channel replay techniques.
The SUNSET back-seat driver mechanism has been used to control and operate the entire network from the control station on the NRV Alliance.

We gratefully acknowledge the NATO STO Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE) for its valuable feedback and for its support and help during the tests.

More information can be found in this paper.

Figure: NATO CommsNet12.
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R. Petroccia and D. Spaccini, "Implementing a Back-Seat Driver to Remotely Control the Experiments in an Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network," in Proceedings of MTS/IEEE OCEANS 2013, (Bergen, Norway), IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society, June, 10-13 2013. - [BIB] - [PDF]






Validation - INESC Porto - 2012



July - August



Different experiments have been conducted at the Douro river near Porto (Figure) in July and August 2012 to test and validate the use of acoustic communication to estimate the distances among the different nodes in the network while moving, to control in a remote and on-line way the operations of the Zarco and Gama Autonomous Surface Vehicles (ASVs), and to let the ASVs cooperate together in a given mission, interacting with each other and with a remote station.
All the nodes have been equipped with a Gumstix running SUNSET. SUNSET was responsible to provide communication and networking capabilities to allow the interaction and data exchange among the different nodes in the network. Evologics modems S2C R 18/34 have been used for acoustic data transmissions. All these tests have been performed in collaboration with the Oceansys group.

The combination of ranging estimation and data transmission has been tested at various distances with the two surface vehicles moving in opposite directions and two NIBs (Navigation and Instrumentation Buoys) statically deployed. Each of the two vehicles was periodically transmitting data and waiting for a response from the other nodes. Distance estimation was performed according to the travel time between the sender transmission and the different receiver responses. Moreover, the sender was also piggybacking its estimation to the data packet informing the other nodes about its estimation. The first results on the combination of ranging estimation and data transmission have been really promising, showing a good efficiency for the implemented mechanism and a high accuracy for the estimated ranging information (from few centimeters up to 2 meters).
During experiments to control the ASV operations, the use of acoustic communication to instruct Zarco and Gama has been extensively tested. Several acoustic commands have been sent from the control station to both the vehicles and from one vehicle to the other instructing each vehicle on the action to perform. Moreover, the same approach has been also used to let the two ASVs cooperate together to perform a given mission. Two missions have been considered. In "Mission 1" Gama was instructing Zarco (in a real-time and on-line way) on following a predefined path. A square path with sides of ∼ 30m has been selected (Figure). In "Mission 2" the two vehicles were instructing each other to move alternatively along the square corners (Figure).

More information can be found in this papers.

Figure: Experiments at the Douro river (Porto - Portugal).
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Demonstration videos follow (we apologize for the low resolution):

Gama instructs Zarco on following a predefined path (Mission 1).
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The two vehicles were instructing each other on the actions to perform (Mission 2).
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The two vehicles were moving in formation (Formation 1).
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The two vehicles were moving in formation (Formation 2).
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N. A. Cruz, B. M. Ferreira, O. Kebkal, A. C. Matos, C. Petrioli, R. Petroccia and D. Spaccini. "Investigation of Underwater Acoustic Networking Enabling the Cooperative Operation of Multiple Heterog eneous Vehicles", Marine Technology Society Journal, Vol. 47, March/April, 2013, pp. 43-58(16). - [BIB]

N. A. Cruz, B. M. Ferreira, A. C. Matos, C. Petrioli, R. Petroccia and D. Spaccini, "Implementation of an Underwater Acoustic Network using Multiple Heterogeneous Vehicles," in Proceedings of MTS/IEEE OCEANS 2012, (Hampton Roads, Virginia, USA), IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society, October, 14-19 2012. - [BIB] - [PDF]









Validation - CMRE - 2012



April



In April 2012, different routing protocols have been performed at the NATO Undersea Research Centre (CMRE), formerly NURC.
A network with 5 static nodes and 2 mobile nodes have been deployed in the harbour of "La Spezia", Italy, close by the CMRE facility. As mobile platforms two "MANTA" portable modem systems carried around by Rigid Hull Inflatable Boats (RHIBs) were considered. During these experiments (Figure) different routing protocols have been tested, including flooding solutions and the Channel Aware Routing protocol (CARP) - described in this paper - which is a cross-layer solution developed by the UWSN group of the Senses Lab.
Evologics modems S2C R 18/34 were used for acoustic data transmissions.
All the performed experiments showed the flexibilty and modularity of the SUNSET approach when implementing new MAC, routing and cross-layer solutions and when running on different node platforms.

Figure: Routing experiments at CMRE.
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S. Basagni, C. Petrioli, R. Petroccia, and D. Spaccini, "Channel-aware Routing for Underwater Wireless Networks," in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2012, (Yeosu, Korea), IEEE Computer Society, May, 21-24 2012. - [BIB] - [PDF]







Validation - CLAM - 2012



March



A first set of experiments considering the cNode Kongsberg modem has been conducted within the EU-funded project CLAM "Collaborative embedded networks for submarine surveillance" in Enschede, The Netherland.
A new driver for the cNode Kongsberg modem has been implemented in December 2011 and integrated in the SUNSET framework.
Preliminary tests have been first conducted at the SENSES lab in Rome, where two kongsberg boards were wired together (the cable was mimic the acoustic link) were considered.
In March 2012 the driver was tested using three complete cNode in a diving centre in Enschede (Figure). CSMA protocol was used for nodes communications. Moreover, a CO2Probe, described in this paper, has been integrated and interfaced to the cNode Kongsberg modem. Measurements were collected by one node and delivered in real-time to the other nodes in the network.
All the conducted tests have shown that, once APIs are provided to control the operation of acoustic modems, sensors, etc., the time needed to design and implement the specific driver is very short and proportional to the complexity of the operations required by the specific hardware. The extra code required to interface a new modem or hardware to the framework ranges from few hundreds to thousands lines of code and can be implemented within a week.
Once the driver is ready, the external hardware can be plugged and tested in lab and water without any further code change. Therefore, with a really minimal efforts we can use and test different protocol stacks on different static and mobile nodes, assuming different acoustic modems for communications.

Figure: Experiments in the diving centre in Enschede using cNode Kongsberg modems.
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A. Annunziatellis, S. Graziani, S. Lombardi, C. Petrioli and R. Petroccia, "CO2Net: A marine monitoring system for CO2 leakage detection," in Proceedings of MTS/IEEE OCEANS 2012, (Yeosu, Korea), IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society, May, 21-24 2012. - [BIB] - [PDF]







Validation - INESC Porto - 2012



February



During the first months of 2012, the communication interface to control the operations of the MARES Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV), produced by Oceansys group at the University of Porto has been designed and implemented for SUNSET.
Using this interface commands can be sent remotely to the AUV via acoustic links thus instructing the vehicle to perform the requested operations.
In February 2012, the implemented solution has been integrated inside the MARES AUV and tested in the swimming pool at the Oceansys laboratory (Figure 4). A gumstix device has been used to run SUNSET inside the vehicle and Evologics modems S2C R 18/34 were used for acoustic data transmissions. One modem was connected to the control station and acoustic commands were sent to instruct the vehicle on performing requested operations.
The results obtained during these experiments have been really promising further convincing us on the potentiality of the proposed solution.
The vehicle was controlled using acoustic commands and the selected protocol stack (running on SUNSET) was responsible for the delivering of the acoustic packet from the central station to the vehicle and vice versa. More involved tests using several AUVs and Autonomous Surface Vehicles (ASVs) will be conducted during summer 2012.

Figure 4: SUNSET working on MARES AUV.
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A demonstration video follows:

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